(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Apple Manual: VolcanoesManual"

Volcanoes® is a registered 
trademark of Earthuare 

Computer Services Volcanoes®/ 
upon which this product Is based/ 
is copyright 1981. 1987 and 
Volcanoes® Deluxe is coyright 1987. 
Apple IIGS is a registered trademark 
of Apple Computer, Inc Apple® makes 
no warranties whatsoever for this product 
See inside for Earthware warranties. 



Volcanoes'* 

and 

Volcanoes Deluxe Handbook 




£artmt>are Computer Services 
P.O. tox 30039 
Eugene, Oft 97403 

Tef. <503 ) 344 -3383 




Uoloanoes® 
and 

Uolcanoes® Qel 
Handbook 



6 33365 



U able, of Contents 



Betting Started pages 1-10 

P.Q specific information pages I S 

BS/Hpple II pages S ID 

History of Illrangelia pages 11-15 

Uolcanology pages 16-17 

Summaries of Volcanic Eruptions pages 18-23 

Investigation Descriptions pages 26-37 

Instructor/User IRanual pages 38-11 

Pre Lesson pages 15-50 

Blossary pages 51-57 

Bibliography pages 58 58 



Setting Started: Qeneral Information for HII Users of 

Volcanoes^ 



You can play Volcanoes* without reading any 
of the documentation because the instructions are all 
printed on the screen. However, it is important that 
you Know what the various investigations do so that 
you may interpret the data correctly. 

Illrangelia is a mythical land, the existence of 
which is still being debated among scientists. The 
positioning of the various types of volcanoes in 
close proHimity is contrary to nature and is 
attributed to artistic license used to create a 
game playable on the computer screen. 

Volcanoes* uses a game format to teach 
diverse attitudes and skills and to present a great 
deal of information. Being professional educators 
•e recognize that you may view this as an unusual 
approach to teaching. The advantages of th.s format 
include improved student motivation and better 
retention of material. Hmong its disadvantages .s that 
you may need extra time to prepare the material 
based upon your use of the program. This manual .s 
intended to help you reduce the time needed to 
spend preparing to use Volcanoes** . and 
incorporates suggestions for effective use of the 
program. 

One turn in the game is equivalent to three 
months in the "rear' world. Be suggest that you 
play a given game for no longer than two hours. 
Children in the sixth grade through adult can 
benefit from using the program. 



1 



Vou will need to know soma basis vocabulary to 
utilize this name. Volaano&s& is assigned to 
encourage thinking and to teach concepts essential 
to understanding the volcanic process and the 
mechanisms used to predict eruptions. 

The new deluxe versions for the PO compatibles 
and the Hpple HQS begin in the ijear 2000 while the 
old Hpple II versions begin in 1980. 

Permissions Branted Original Purchasers: 

Persission to reproduce the copyrighted 
Materials is granted to the original purchaser only 
for use in his/her classes. The right to distribute 
the program is limited to Earthware® and persons 
authorized by Earthware®. This means that no 
teacher shall make copies for distribution to other 
schools thoughout a school district. H bach up 
diskette may be made for the purpose of archiving. 
(Baps and copies of information about the 
investigations ma 14 also be reproduced. Permission is 
also granted to print any of the pictures on the dish 
for classroom use and study if you have a version 
with the print function. 

Additional disks are available at $10* each 
through your dealer or Earthware. Special 
configurations are possible through Earthware. Lab 
packs may be ordered through dealers, distributors 
or Earthware. Oprices subject to change without 
notice] 



3 



Using fhe Haps 



The maps are designed to allow for 1. 3. 3. or 
q players. If only one person is playing, he/she 
gets to supervise the entire territory. If two are 
plotiing. then the first player will need maps 1 and 3 
and the second player 3 and 1. If three are play.ng 
then maps one. tour, and five will be utilized. This 
program can work very well for an entire class in 
teams or with individuals. 

Vou will find that you have two copies of each 
map that have numbers one through five. The maps 
have "h" and "y" coordinates marked on them. Hs 
you play the game and do the investigations, you will 
gain valuable information about the volcanoes in your 
area. This information should be recorded as you 
play the game to determine which volcanoes are the 
most likely to erupt. 

The maps have coordinates that begin at "IT in the 
lower left hand corner and increase as you move 
toward the right.* Vou probably know how to locate a 
point on the map using the "h" and "y" coordinates 
Vou will recall that the "n" anis runs horizontally and 
the "y" vertically. Oslightly less clear with old Hpple 
II version.] 

Regarding Budgets and Oredif abilities: 

Uolaanoas ® is designed so that you may 
change the warning levels for areas other than your 
own BUT if you set the warning levels of other 
players recklessly, the credibilities of all players 
decrease but in varying degrees, flood pred.ct.ons 
can reduce damages or lives lost in eruptions by 

3 



g.v.ng t.mely warning, and increase the oreditabilities 
of all players, in particular the player in charge of 
the area in which the eruption occured and mho made 
the accurate prediction. 

4 B ^ a1tt dB P Bnd U P°" «»oth public and scientific 
ered.tab.ht.es as well as the tax base of the areas 
for wh.ch you are responsible. Tan bases generally 
« ro " " ,lh «»ut are diminished by damaging 

eruptions so if is important to mahe good 
pred.otions. Ci.e. In real life if a large building is 

das . T ad bl L fir V oannof be usad a » ° ,fioa »P«°« 

unt.l ,f , s rebu.lt. While it is unusable. taHes on that 
property are diminished.} In the game of life, one 
must cooperate to understand natural phenomena and 
to l.m.t the damaging effects of dangerous natural 
processes, ttoioanoos* contains elements of 
competitiveness but these are less prominent than in 
other strategy games. 

Betting Started Using the PO or Oompatibles: 

Hardware configuration for either the IB ■ PO® 
or compatibles is 338N of memory, color monitor and 
one or t.o floppy dish drives. 3.33 inches. Vou will 
need the Microsoft® DOS. version 3.0 or later. 

To boot the program simpfy insert the System 
Baster dish in drive *W\ Shen the dish in "FT stops 
runn.ng. replace that dish with your Volcanoes dish 
and type "Doloano". This program may be used with 
a one or a two drive system. The latter is 
preferable because if you boot with the first drive 
■nsert the Volaanoos ® dish in "FT and a formatted 
d.sh in ■"B", you mill be all ready to save your game 
•hen the time comes. 



1 



flow that the title screen is up you will be 
ashed to enter the name of the volcanologist who is 
in charge of Hfringham. etc. Prior to booting the 
game, decide who your team leaders are and gather 
all necessary materials so that valuable time will not 
be lost. Bap grids are only on the printed sheets 
which accompany the game. If you lose them, you 
must get additional copies from Earthware. 

Saving Barnes with PB Compatibles: 

There is very little room for saving games on 
the program dish and therefore it is best to have a 
formatted blank diskette ready to use for saving 
your games. Vou should use the same dish every 
time and update the game by saving if using the 
same name or add new games by changing the name. 
Vou may exit and save a game at the end of a 
season only. Therefore, you must watch your time if 
you are using the game in a classroom situation. Vou 
might select "flo" when ashed whether you wish to 
continue playing if time is getting short and save the 
game. Vou may then re-enter the saved game and 
play until time is up. Simply select "exit", type the 
name of your game, and press return to save your 
game. 

The PO version is a more graphic program 
than the old version and it is not copy protected. 
Bmong the enhancements, you have an Information 
Soman that is intended to give you an idea of the 
layering of the earth as scientists currently believe 
it to be configured. 

Longine On and Beginning Play Using the Apple 



3 



HQS. 



Before qou can plaq qou should have the 
following hardware configuration: Apple HQs with at 
least 3I2N expansion RHffl. one or two 3.3 unidish 
drivon, NOB Monitor, and mouse*. The* plaq is anhanoad 
with a megabqte of memorq beoause pictures that 
must be reloaded from dish, become memory resident, 
thus speeding up the sane. 

Loading Instructions for the 8S Version of 
Uoltsanoes® Deluxe.... 

...with one dish drive C3.33 
Place qour ProOOS IS version 3.1 or newer 
dish in the first drive. When the drive light goes out. 
remove the dish and insert qour Volcanoes dish. 
Select. Volcanoes. sqslS from either the Program 
Launcher or frow the Deshtop. 

...with two dish drives C3.53... 

Place ijour ProOOS IB version 3.1 or newer dish 
in the first drive, the one that runs first when qou 
turn on the computer. When the light goes out. 
remove the dish an insert ijour UalaanoasG> 
dish, now follow the same procedure as listed above 
for use with one drive. 

Logging on is simple because all of the areas 
are in need of a volcanologist. Vou will learn a bit 
about the area before qou decide to worh in anq 
particular area. Fit this time qou should have maps 
with grids of qour particular area. Hs mentioned 
before, the grid does not appear anqwhere else 
except on the printed maps. 



8 



Sequence of Plaq on the BS= 



Valuations™ uses the Deshtop environment 
Select "lew Oame" from under "Fife". HI Ihte po«" 
qou will be ashed to decide the level of d.ff.cultq 
and tell the computer how manq are P'^H- Then " 
uou will be ashed to enter qour name. Utter qou 
enter qour nameCsD as scientists! for an area the 
screen -ill turn a prettq hue- and rema.n verq blanh 

until qou select the (BEDES ! » ^SLS^iJS^m 

select an investigation from under HDEES 
selecting studies until qou have tr.ed all of them or 
exhausted qour curiositq Cor budget! with regard to 
qour volcanoes. Set warning levels for qour volcano 
and turn over the reins of power to another 
scientist bq selecting another name under plaqer 
Remember qour oreditabilitq depends upon accurate 
predictions! 

The advantage of the game in this format is 
that qou maq decide on the basis on one 
investigation to change warning levels for an area 
and be able to do that at once rather than at the 
end of qour turn. In addition, plaqers maq go in 
whatever order theq wish owing to the OS format. 

Saving the Bawe and Deleting Files on the OS 
and the llpple II 

Using the 8S. qou maq select "Save" at anq time 
and exit the program. If qou have investigat-ons that 
are on the screen with the windows open at the t.me 
that qou decide to go to "File" and select Save . 
that information will (10T be saved. 

Investigations with results to be given "flexf 



7 



Season" will be saved. Therefore, if qou are in the 
middle of a Qas Analysis, qou must decide to either 
finish the investigation or to abort and re-do it newt 
session. In the latter ease, qou have alreadq been 
charged for the investigation and so it would be 
bast to finish it. Clt is a "dash in advanoa" tqpe of 
situation— an experience oonsistant with the "real 
world".] 

The tipple II save routine is complex owing to 
dish space and file accessibility. The history of 
vulcanise is on the front of the dish and the game 
is on the bash. Each tiwe qou save a gawe both of 
those files are created or updated. CDish fronfsids 
files eontain the prefix "H." and backside files "3. "J 
Vou should have an instruction sheet for the Hpple II 
series "delete gawe" funotion. If qou do not. please 
request it frow us. it is vital inforwation. Use no 
write-protect tabs on this version! 

Printing Pictures Using the 88: 

The pictures on the dish waq be printed using 
an Iwagewriter II printer if qou have the QS version. 
Vou select "Print" which is under "File" and qou will 
be ashed which pictures qou wish to print. Pictures 
waq be printed in color if qou have a color ribbon. 



8 



Volcanoes^ Beluxe— Benu Descriptions for the BS 



■ami functions for the GS* version are 
discussed below for qour oonvience. Vou waq 
choose to photooopq these for classroom use. if qou 
are using this program in that situation. 

File: 

flaw: Use this to start a new game. 

Load: Loads an old game that was 
saved on dish. 

Save : Saves the current game. 

BJliaa Bll : (Hoses all of the windows 
visable. 

Pxinl: Prints the eruption pictures, 
the wap of Hrangelia. Earth's crust, 
and a ourrent history of eruptions. 

Quit : Quits the gawe. 

Edif- This wenu option is not used bq this 
prograw. 

Studies: These are the various 
investigations which are performed on the 
volcanoes. Detailed information is to be 
found in the "Investigation" section of this 



8 



■anual Holia* that aoma of fha maohinas 
will not funotion if qou do not 
remember to turn them on! 



Plaqera: This option anablaa users to 
select order of plaqera to aonduaf the 
•nvesf. B ations. set warning levels, or go to 
neut season. 

Options: 

Hisloxq: Read about the recent 
hisforq of voloanisa with tha 
micro fiehe viewer. 

Earth's Hm«l= View the earth's 
orust in a oolorful out-aaaij 
viea. 

I camalia i Shoes tha map of 
■rangelia. 

Mannings: Set the warning lavel for 
the inhabitants of ijour araaCs]. 



ID 



Qaneral Historical Background 

fllairante Perulera. commanding a squadron of 
three ships and ordered bq the Spanish government 
to search for a florthwest Passage, first sighted 
several of the volcanoes of the Mrangelia region in 
August of 1788. He named lit. Asuncion, Boca Qarrada 
Peah. and fit. Fuego Cwhich mas erupting when first 
sighted] of the archipelago now named for Captain 
Hfringhaa of H.IB.S. Astrolabe, who made landfall there 
in Julq 1788. Perulera also named El Matador on the 
mainland, from a fancied resemblence of that cinder 
cona and the shield volcano of Rift Mountain 
Coriginallq named El ToroD to a bullfighter and bull. 
He Cor rather, his lookouts; the Rlmirante is thought 
to have been near-sighted] must have sean manq 
other volcanic edifices of the region, but there is 
no mention of thaa in the expedition's logbooks 
preserved in archives at Barcelona. 

Perulera'a ships anchored just outside Dog Lag 
Harbour, between Qeorge Island and Oharlotte Island 
to take on water, firewood, and whatever food could 
be obtained Cchieflq smoked salmon and dried 
berries, according to logbook entries] bq trade with 
tha local inhabitants. 

From later writings bq Sir Eduardo Qhurruca. 
aboard as a volunteer [?] naturalist, it is clear that 
at least one small partq from the ahips climbed the 
northern slopes of It. Fuego to the rim of the 
summit caldara. and observed fire fountains and lava 
flows erupting from the South Rift Zone. Qhurruca 
describes how the tongues of lava divided as theq 
flowed around the base of what we now know as 
Rolling Stone Butte; his description allows us to 



11 



identify confidently the produafs of the 178S 
eruption, even though lit. Fuego has erupted quite 
frequently since then. 

The Perulera expedition put out to sea rather 
hurriedly, apparently baoausa they were alarmed bq 
signs of an impending eruption of (it. Asuncion. The 
logbook does not state aleartq where the alarming 
symptoms originated, but because Perutera's ships 
had not futlq repfenished their essential stores, it 
seems likely that the volcano shoeing signs of 
aofivitq was thought to be potentially more dangerous 
than was fflt. Fusgo. Perulera did not disoovsr the 
splendid anchorage of Qeorgeville Harbour, and 
certainly his ships would have been seriously 
threatened by even a moderate eruption of the 
Asuncion volcano, if the wind had shifted towards a 
more northerly bearing. 

When Hfringham sighted the archipelago that now 
bears his name, not quite two years later, lit. Fuego 
was quiet but Asuncion was emitting minor steam 
bursts and ash-laden blasts, and a very 
fresh-looking fava flow exhibiting an alignment of 
steam vents, apparently where it had overriden a 
small stream valley Cforming laharsl. was seen on 
Hsumcion's southeastern slopes. Although Hfringham 
commented at some length on this spectacle in his 
logbook, no such flow was mentioned by Perulera. but 
the omission may not be significant. On the whole, it 
seems likely that Asuncion did indeed erupt a lava 
flow between Rugust of 1788 and July of 1788; this 
lava seems to have been buried by products of 
more-recent eruptions of the voloano. 



13 



Hfringham found and was much taken with 
Beorgeville Harbour, although his enthusiasm for .t 
was somewhat tempered by the light shower of 
voT.."™.!. fromV Hshfal. Cnamed by Hfli« B ha. in 
honour of the occasion} that was earned by an east 
wind to sprinkle the rigging and deck of h.s sh.p 
during 31st to 33rd of July. 1788. CThis w.nd 
direction is unusual; west winds prevail in -range ha 
during most of the year.3 Hfringham reoogn.zed I the 
protential hazards of eruptions from Hsuno.or. and 
Hshfall. but seems to have been unaware hat 
Beorgeville Harbour itself was formed by lavas from 
the Deadfall Butte cinder cone, and could .n some 
future eruption be closed off by such a lava flow. 
His report emphasized the advantages of the 
harborage and the abundance of natural resources 
such as fish. furs, and timber far more than the 
volcanic hazards, and was instrumental .n 
encouraging the first European settlement, at 
Qeorgeville in 1801. 

though many ships visited the archipelago and 
the coastal areas of the adjacent mainland dur.ng the 
early 1800 s. and there were permanent European 
settlements at Beorgeville and Qamas « a «^* C ' a,er 
re named QamasportJ. we have regrettably-l.ttle 
information about volcanic activity dur.ng the f.rst 
part of the nineteenth century, perhaps because .t 
was so common as to be unremarkable. He know of 
an eruption of wide spread air-fall ash from Boca 
Qerrada during the winter of 1815. and there are 
somewhat-confusing reports of what probably was an 
ash flow tuff CignimbriteJ erupted from Bumulus Peak 
that destroyed good fur-trapping grounds northwest 
of that voloano during the summer of 18diJ. 



13 



Reoonnaissanaa geologic mapping of coastal 
Brigalorn suggests that a tongue of this ash flow 
may have moved down the Talogit River valley nearly 
to tha present site of Talogit dity. Precise date of 
the eruption of this ignimbrite has not been 
determined. 

Until the ISSOs. the areas east of the dumulus 
Peak—Skyline Peak— St. Hshfatl axis were very 
sparsely settled. Beginning in that decade 
transcontinental Migration and the growth of 
agricultural settlements along the rivers of interior 
derkin changed that general area from a 
largely-ignored hinterland to one of considerable 
economic importance. This process was greatly 
accelerated by discovery of placer gotd deposits 
east of the city of Salmon dreek. which grew rapidly 
as a consequence. Salmon dreek now is a mining, 
lumbering, and manufacturing center rivalling the 
older communities of deorgeville dishing, textiles, 
manufacturing, and shipping] and damasport 
Cmanufacturing. shipbuilding, and shipping mood 
products, electronics]. 

Four smaller cities are located in the region. 
Hrbol dreek. at the south end of Prince Ernest 
Island, depends on fishing, paper mills, and lumber. 
Talogit dity. across Hfringham Passage to the east 
of Hrbol dreek. ships food products, building stone, 
and lumber, Bolfridge at the confluence of Thunder 
River and the South Fork of (Jamas River, about 33 
kilometers dE of dumufus Peak, is known for forest 
products, tourism, a major wildlife park, and outdoor 
recreation. Indian Ford on the north bank of tha 
main stem of damas River, about 10 kilometres SB of 
■t- Hshfall. spaoializes in manufacturing, food 



IH 



processing, and dairy produots and their distribution, 
and is a transportation hub. 

The small towns in Hfringham are dog Leg 
Harbour and driftwood Cdharlotte Island! and Emily 
CPrince Ernest Island!. Ratohetville is located in 
coastal Brigalorn. just west of Ratchet mountain, and 
deerfrail is in interior Brigalorn. about 3H kilometres 
east of dumulus Peak. In damasport Cthe name of 
both one of the principal cities of Hrangelia and of 
the province in which that city is located}. Black 
Sand Beach is on the coast, just north of the Rift 
Mountain shield volcano, and Slide is about 38 
kilometres east of tha city of damasport. Small towns 
of derkin are Otter Rook and Seal dity Csouth and 
north, respectively, of the derkin River in coastal 
derkin! and dreentree. along the upper damas River, 
about 40 kilometres SB of Salmon dreek. 



13 



Uoiaanology 



The Major volcanoes of Uirangelia have been 
classified, somewhat arbitrarily, info fhree types: 
andesifio composite volcanoes, basaltic shield 
voloanoas. and oindar cones. The five andesifio 
volcanoes are much like those found at and near 
continental margins around the Pacific, except they 
sees to erupt sore frequently than is commonly 
observed elsewhere. Reconnaissance studies have 
shown that they tend to erupt pyroclastic materials 
Cair-fall ash tuff blanhats and ash-flow tuffs] wore 
frequently than lavas, although this conclusion may 
be wrong because the lavas tend to be restricted to 
the slopes of the volcanoes, and the tuffs are 
tqpioallq widespread. These volcanoes are called 
"composite" because theq are composed of nearlq 
equal amounts of lavas and of fragmenfal materials 
lihe tuffs and lahars. but of course we do not Know, 
even roughly, what the proportions of these eruption 
products are in anq composite none because the 
youngest materials veneer and hide the older ones, 
and all the cones have been eroded onlq to a minor 
degree. 

Three basaltic shield volcanoes Cone in the 
Rfringham archipelago-- for which a better term might 
be the "Rfringham island arc" — and two that are part 
of the mainland coastal belt of volcanic vents] in the 
region erupt frequentlq. sometimes from rift zones 
that cut these volcanic edifices, sometimes from the 
summit caldera found in each. Eruptions from vents at 
or near the summit tend to precede those from rift 
zones, much as has bean verq well-documented for 
Hawaiian shield volcanoes in their youthful stages of 
development. Fire founfaining is common, especially 



during early stages of summit eruptions, and often 
spectacular but rarely hazardous. Lavas, especially 
those erupted from rift zones low on the ftanhs of 
the shields, tend to cause most of the damage and 
the rare injuries associated with this style of 
voloanism. 

Although the andesitic composite cones and the 
basaltic shield volcanoes of this region are in many 
ways quite similar to their counterparts elsewhere, 
some at least of the cinder cones of this region 
appear to be unusual. In general, it is rare to 
observe multiple eruptions, separated bq quiescent 
periods of manq qears. from cinder cones. Theq 
tend, rather, to erupt during a fairlq short time-span, 
building the entire edifice Ca cinder cone, sometimes 
with a lava flow breaking out of its base late in the 
eruptive cqcte] and then becoming extinct. 
Fragmentarq evidence Ce.g.. see outlines of eruption 
histories for Deadfall Butte, loss Mountain, and 
Rolling Stone Butte] suggests that at least some of 
the cinder cones of this region have erupted 
repeatedlq. It is probably prudent to consider all of 
them as dormant unless detailed studies of individual 
cinder cones suggest that theq are indeed extinct. 
Perhaps some of the region s cinder cones are in 
realitq verq qouthful composite volcanoes, that simply 
have not qet grown to sizes that would make it easy 
for us to recognize them as such. 

Volcanic eruptions in the region since 1875 
have been reasonably well- documented; summaries of 
the historic records of these eruptions, 1873 to 
3000 are given below, following tabulations that will 
help you to Keep in mind the names and locations of 
the volcanoes. 



17 



Sum mm ins of Reoords of Uolaanio Eruptions 
[pre 2000] 



ML Bsunoipn— probably, erupted a lava flow 

during the period 1783 to 1788. 

—Between about 1780 and 1830 it 
erupted four igniabrites and at 
least siN air-fall ash tuffs. 

— It may have erupted a lava flow 
in 1833; it erupted a large 
air-fafl ash, aooowpanied by a 
lahar whiah aaused 18 deaths 
and auoh damage in Qeorgeville. 
during 1873. 

— Hn igniabrite eruption whiah 
aaused oinor danage to forests 
oooured in 1833 but apparently, 
has been dormant froa 1843 to 
1880. 

—In 1881 the alledgedly ''dead'" 
voloano ease to life and 
erupted a targe ash-fall tuff and 
a lahar. This eruption aaused the 
deaths of 1180 people and auoh 
daaage in Qeorgeville. 

— 1881 the voloano erupted a 
saall igniabrite whiah resulted in 
little daaage to the surrounding 
aountrijsida whiah had not yet 
recovered froa the great 
eruption of 1881. 



18 



—in 1883-8 steaa was seen 
cosing froa the aain vent but 
since then the volcano has been 
quiet. 

Boca Oerrada Peah- erupted extensive air-fall 
ash in 1813. and again in 188d. 
1902. and 1913. 

— Igniabrites were erupted in 
1883. 1801. and 1913. There were 
ainor eruptions froa 1913 to 
1930. 

dormant froa 1930 to 1980. 

— Smoke and steaa preceeded a 
saall eruption in 1883 but there 
has been no activity since then. 

Quaulus Peah— The eruption activity of this 

volcano is poorly documented; 
—probable eruption of an 
igniabrite in 1833. 

— Hir fall ash erupted in 1929. 
1933. 1948. 1833. and 1939. In 
the last eruption siH lives were 
lost as there were prospectors 
in the area at the tiae of the 
eruption. 

—Igniabrite eruption in 1943. 

— Boraant froa 1939 to present. 



19 



Skyline Peak's eruptive history is poorlij hnotun; 

as Ions ago as 1873. eruptions 
from it and from nearby cinder 
oones have not been reliably 
dietinguisriad. 

— It way have erupted as many 
as ten tines between 1800 and 
1873. 

—It erupted an ignimbrite in 
1884. with heavy damage to 
forests northeast of the peak. 

—It appears to have been 
dorwant unfit the present time. 

■f. fishtail— was nawed after a large euption in 
1788. Rt least thirteen eruptions 
of ash. the dates of whioh are 
poorly known, were seen frow 
Qeorgeville between 1803 and 
1873; additional eruptions are 
recorded for 1803. 1831. 1838. 
1838. and 1843. 

— The history of eruptions of 
ignimbrites. lahars. and lavas is 
unknown. It has been dorwant 
frow 1813 to 3000. 

Bt. Fuego erupted lava and vent agglowerate 

Cfrow a rawarkable fire fountain] 
in 1788. and at least five lavas 
between then and 1880. 



30 



— Known lava eruptions ooeured 
in 1803. 1808. 1813. 1818, 1838. 
1833. 1831, 1838. 1811. 1881. 
1883. 1883. 1883. 1883. 1888 and 
1883. flo eruptions have oooured 
since 1883. 

Rift Bountain-erupted lava at laasHhraa or 
four tiwes between 1832 and 
1880. 

— Lava erupted in 1883. 1887. 
1883. 1814. 1833. 1S2S. 1830. 
1831. 1843. 1844. 1830. 1832. 
1833. 1884. 1883. 1881. 1882. 
1883. 1880 and 1884 and 1883. 

— flo eruptions since 1883. 

Flat Top Bountain— experienced fifteen lava 

eruptions between 1804 Cwhen 
lava was seen at the the 
Western Rift ZoneD and 1813 
were observed trow Qeorgeville. 
but except for the 1804 and the 
1803 events. eNaot dates are 
not known. 

—Eruptions frow the Eastern Rift 
Zone prior to 1840 way have 
gone unnoticed. Lava erupted in 
1817. 1830. 1843. 1833. 1880. and 
1878. 

-Dorwant frow 1878 to 3000. 



31 



Deadfall Butte— erupted air-fall ash in 1803. 

ISIS. ISIS. IS3I Cseven lives 
lost, earn* injured], 1833. 18SI. 
1881. 1830. 1831. and 1838. 

— It erupted lava in 1818. 1834. 
1883. I88S. 1833. 1833. 1837. 
1843. 1847. 1830. 1833. I8S0. 
1883. 1887. I8S8 and 1871. 

—It has been dormant from 1871 
to 3000. 

Rollins Stone Butte— lihe its neighbor. Boss 

Bountain. is hidden from the 
Qeorgeville area by Bt. Fuego. 
and often hidden from Oamasport 
by persistent fog in Hfringham 
Passage. 

— Bany eruptions prior to 1843 
way have gone unnoticed. 

— fish erupted in 1833 and again 
in 1843; a series of eight ash 
eruptions, terminated by a lava 
flow, ooourred during the period 
1873 to 1883 and was studied 
with some oare. 

dormant from 1883 to 3000. 



33 



Boss Bountain— Lihe Rolling Stone. Boss is 
difficult to observe and many 
eruptions prior to 1843 may have 
gone unnotieed. Lava flows 
erupted in 1833 and 1883; air fall 
ash in 1838. 1838. 18B4. 18S8. 
1887. 1873. 

— Dormant from 1873 until the 
present year of 3000. 

Dogwood Bountain— is named after a common 

tree in the forest dominating it- 
Do record of eruptions is 
known. 

Ratchet Bountain- despite its location in a zone 
of heavy rainfall, is lightly 
vegetated and may therefore 
have erupted vigorously within 
the past few hundreds of years. 
—Do known eruptions. 

Rumble Butte— is moderately well-vegetated; no 
known eruptions. 

Bear Olaw Butte— is heavily forested, except on 
the surfaces of a relatively 
recent lava flow that issued from 
the northeast part of its base. 
—Do known eruptions 

Salt Lick Bountain— sits on metamorphio rooks and 
relatively old sedimentary rooks; 
it is lightly vegetated, but has 
no history of known eruptions. 



33 



Broken Thumb Butte— erupted lava in 1823 and 

air-fall ash in 1818 and 183S. 



--IBinor steam blasts vara 
observed in 1883. 1883. 1883. 
and 1888. dormant iron 1888 to 
the present. 

El ■atador--is heavily vegetated and presumably, 
has not erupted for at least 
several hundred years. 

Bubbling Springs lountain hot springs beneath 
the Mountain for anion it is 
naiad. 

—it is lightly vegetated and may 
have erupted during the period 
1887 to 1811. 

Broken Fish 8ountain— must have erupted at 
least two air-fall ash blankets 
and one lava floe sinoe 1873 
■hen it was desoribed in a 
trapper's journal. The dates of 
these eruptions are not known. 

—It has been dormant from 1833 

to the present. 

Forked Tongue Butte— is named after the 

'forked' lava flow that issued 
from its base on the (18 side. 
This lava oovsrs ash that is 
probably froa the eruption of Mt. 

m 



i 



Rshfall eruption of 1788, but 
oould be younger. It « 
overlain by three dist.ngu.shable 
air fall layers, frow unknown 
souroes. 

-Bor-ant fro- at least 1838 until 
present. 

Byke Butte is na-ed after 

prominent rad.at.ng d.kes. 
Lposed by erosion on .ts 3 and 

(IE sides. Bpparently dorwant tor 

hundreds of years. 

— — i-js srjr-" 

joined by a saddle of moderate 
elevation. 



-Bonejo is a large edifioe with 
sowe vegetation and no h.story 
of eruptions. 



high elevation, wnere s 
plant oover after eruptions .s 

slow, yet it «» ba ab ° Ul 

a « well vegetated as are 
neighboring areas. Bo known 
eruptions. 

of eruptions. 



33 



History of volcanic Eruptions Caftar 3000]: 



Vour computer haeps track of alt voloanio 
eruptions reported in Hrangolia after 3000 CFor 
■nforaatior. on .hat is hno.n about arupfions before 
cJUUO. at the time you took up your research 
pos.t.on. saa the Smmarias saation above]. Vou can 
oa up those records, to remind yourself and uour 
colleagues about which volaanoas have been aative 
recently, and how dangerous they have baen. II 
shield volcano that has erupted recently is 
aoderately likely to erupt a B ain in the near future. 
I here may be either a series of closely timed 
eruptions Iron, the other hinds of volcanoes, or one 
or two eruptions followed by long periods 
quiescence. 

Infrared Scan of an Urea: 

The purpose of this investigation is to find "hot 
spots in an area that .ay indicate volcanic hazards. 

Baah g rn i mrt : If magma has bean stored in a 
shallow chamber for a fa. years or .ore. the haat 
flo.mg fro. the magma into the surrounding rook can 
act to raise the ta.peratures of the rooks and soils 
at the Earths surface near the magma chamber 
Ihese elevated temperatures can be detected by a 
variety of types of measurements [placing your hand 
on the ground to test if it feels .arm is flOT one of 
them!]. However, you should nota that if a magma 
chamber is deap. or small, or young, or if lots of 
groundwater is flo.ing over the fop of it and carries 
a.ay its heat, it might not be detected even by a 

38 



very careful survay of surface ta.paraturas. Rlso. 
human activities of .any different hinds produce 
heat, and if you are not careful about your 
interpretations you could mis-identity "hot spots" 
that result from human activities as signatures of 
magma chambers. 

Method: spaoa satellites that are instrumented 
to survey earth resources, and specifically to 
examine the Earth's surface in infrared light Cthe 
wavelengths of light that are longer than those we 
can detect with our eyes, and are profusely emitted 
by warm or hot objects], pass over IHrangelia and 
are available for your use. However, the sensors on 
those satellites are not .ell-suited to penetrate 
cloud cover, which is very common in western 
■rangelia during the .inter and parts of the autumn 
and spring. Hn alternative is to use infrared sensors 
mounted on airplanes, if the satellite images are not 
available Cor just to wait for the weather to clear]. 
In either case, the data on intensities of infrared 
light that .ere recorded by the instruments you 
chose to use .ill be "massaged" by a computer, and 
the locations of "hot spots", if any are found, will be 
reported to you. Vou must then interpret that 
infor.ation. 

Seismic Survey of a Volcano: 

The aim of this investigation is to look for 
volcanic tremor or other evidence of impending 
voloanio activity. 

Background : Seismic signals are waves 
travelling through the Earth that are produced by 
natural events. They include but are not li.ited to 



37 



loaves fro* earthquakes. H partioular hind of seismic 
signal that is important in studying voloanoes is 
"volcanic tremor", the fairly-regular vibrations 
caused by magma moving through volaanie "plumbing 
systems", tin a sense, voloanoes often hue to 
themselves when they are pumping their working fluid 
- magma -from one plaoe to another. The humming is 
in some ways similar to tones produced bu, a eind 
instrument, sueh as an organ or a flute, although of 
course the working fluid-air in one ease, molten 
rooK in the other— is very different.] Movement of 
magma within a volcano precedes almost all eruptions, 
although wagwa can wove and then simply stay within 
the volcano, rather than erupting. 

Looal seises, usually caused bu, swall 
earthquakes within or near the volcanic edifice, also 
oan be symptoms of internal readjustments that way 
precede eruptions. In typical looal seises, a burst of 
energy, signals the arrival of the seismic waves at 
the seiswoeeter. and the intensity of the waves then 
dies away fairly smoothly. This is because, although 
there are different hinds of seismic waves that 
travel at different velocities, when theu. are 
generated close to the seiswoweter that detects 
thee, the waves have not traveled far enough to 
sort thewselves out according to their velocities In 
volaanie regions, most looal seises are too weah to 
be deteoted at any substantial distance from their 
souroes. so that if your seismometers reoord looal 
seises, you can be fairly certain that theu originated 
m or near the partioular voloano you are studying. 
Teleseisws Cthose that have travelled a long way] 
eill show a pair of distinof first arrivals, initially of 
the "primary wave" Cwhioh travels faster], then of 
the "secondary wave". They are likely to appear in 

38 



your seismic records, but do not help you to predict 
volcanic aotivity in your areas. 

Method : You have available to you a number of 
seiswoweters that oan be set up to operate 
remotely, recording seismic events and telemetering 
by radio their records when they are directed to do 
so by a central data-processing installation. They 
are relatively light-weight Cno seiswoweter is really 
"light-weight", because the part of it that actually 
records wave motion must be massive enough to 
resist moving easily, through its inertia, when the 
ground begins trembling under it], and can be set up 
almost anywhere on the slopes of a volcano. The 
computer that processes the data will report to you 
the average number of seiswio events with intensities 
CRichter magnitudes! greater than three recorded 
per month, and will show you a selection of typical 
seiswio records for you to examine and interpret, 
flote that if you choose to put lots of seismometers 
on a particular volcano, you will almost certainly 
defeat wore events than if you had put fewer 
instruments in the field. Thus, the number of 
fairly-energetic events, although it is partly 
dependent on the internal state of the voloano. is 
also partly dependent on the way you did this 
investigation. The presence or absence of volcanic 
tremor, or of local seisms, among the events 
observed should be a useful guide to the chances 
of an eruption from that volcano occurring in the 
near future, although as noted above, magma can be 
moving around within a voloano and the volcano can 
be generating looal seisms, but never erupt. Use 
your judgement. 



38 



Below are soma illustrations of the various seiswia 
signals that you can expect to receive when using 
Volaanoas 



This is an example of a looal seism. 



lota tha sharp and intense beginning of the seismic 
wave form, the lack of a second arrival, and the 
fairly regular decay of the wave form. 



/ 



ml ^ 



Second Arriwl 

This is an example of a teleseisw Cone that 
originated at a great distance from the seismograph], 
flote the distinct first and second arrivals, of tha 
primary Cpush-pull'] and secondary waves, 
respectively. The secondary waves appear as 
sideways waves as in a rope that is supported at 
one end. flote also that the wave fora dies away 
slowly, because of the way energy is spread out ' 
within the earth. 



This is an example of volcanic Cor harmonic] 
tremor, the hind of seismic signal that volaanoas 
produce when magma is Moving within their 'plumbing 
systems", flote the abrupt beginning and end of the 
wave form, and its very regular character, with little 
change in either intensity or frequency. 



30 



* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 

fllap of Ulrangelia 

*************************** 
******************* 



. 1 . .1 ■ . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . •. 1 . » 1 . . 1 » . 1 . . 1 > nX/ si' "■X-' -X* si* sX" sX/ \X/ %X/ -X 1 sXy -X^ 

^p. ^p. «*^. <^> .■•p. .'•p. ■T* * *^P» ^r* *^* -"i" "T* •*T** "T* • T * 

(lap of UJi angelia 

. i . . i j < i . . i . « . i » » Li «x * %Xy \X^ *X » « I * \X* %X»» \X^ \X>" -X" sXv >X> »i« sX^ sL 1 sX 1 

■r^. «*^. •*p i « •*T > " ■X' *^r* *^r* *^P* "^P* *^p* ^i* **t^ ^> "^P* ^i* *^P* "^r* *^r" * i ■ 

* X ' * J. * ■!' * .A * ■ X ° * I * ■ 1 • sX/ • 1 ■ • 1 ■ \JL* '"X." * X ' 

■^p» -^T" ■^T* •^P" ""i* "T" ^i* •T'* ^T* *T* *^n* ^T* ^T"» 



Eleotrioal Qonduotivity Hear a Volcano: 

The purpose of this investigation is to detect 
zones of unusual electrical conductivity, which may 
indicate the existence of shallow magma chambers. 

Background : Host rocks are good electrical 
insulators Cor poor electrical conductors, which is 
just another way of saying the same thing]. However, 
there are some earth materials that exhibit unusually 
large conductivities. They include: 13 ore minerals of 
many hinds, and 33 magma Cwhich conducts electricity 
far better than do common rocks}. Thus, if one can 
measure electrical conductivity on a broad scale, it 
becomes possible to search for either 
eoonomioally-minable ore bodies or for shallow magma 
chambers. It is difficult to find deep magma chambers 
with this kind of survey, because the conductivity 
anomalies they cause tend to merge into anomalies 
formed in other ways, but if Cas is the case for 
most of lilrangeliaJ you can be fairly sure that ore 
bodies are not common enough in the area surveyed 
to confuse the picture, it is a good approach to 
detecting shallow magma chambers. 

Method : One of the most useful methods of 
determining electrical conductivity on an appropriate 
scale is to lay out a loop of thick electrical cable, 
put an electrical pulse through if which generates a 
strong magnetic pulse, and observe in detail how that 
magnetic pulse interacts with the Earth. Field 
magnetometers are fairly inexpensive and easy to 
carry around, and it is best to set up the loop and 
the eleotrioal generator Cusually truck-mounted] in 
one location near the center of the area you want 
to survey, then to move the magnetometers around. 



31 



The truck is stopped at a number of locations 
and records the results of transmitting a series of 
magnetic pulses. H small computer is usually set up 
in the truck, along with the rest of the equipment 
that is required, and "□hams" on the data as theq 
are radioed in from each of the magnetometer 
stations in turn. 

Kith this approach, qour surveq team can build 
up a model of the electrical conductivity anomalies 
as theq are working. When theq decide theq have 
been awaq from town long enough, and have ample 
data to impress qou with what a good a job theq 
have done, theq can pull stakes Creallq. pick up the 
big loop of wire]. 

You will get a report of where conductivity 
anomalies have been found. Vou must then interpret 
those anomalies or their absence. Neep in mind that 
not everq volcano with a shallow magma chamber will 
erupt in the near future, and that volcanoes maq 
erupt bq drawing magma from deep sources, that qou 
cannot detect with this kind of investigation. 

Tiltmeter surveq of a volcano: 

The purpose of this investigation is to find 
patterns of short-term swelling or deflation of a 
volcano, which help predict eruptions. 

Background : It magma is added to or withdrawn 
from a shallow magma chamber, the ground surface 
above the chamber swells or deflates. Many 
volcanoes have magma chambers within or just below 
the pile of erupted material that forms their visible 

33 



struoture. Magma flowing into such chambers from 
deeper sources just before an eruption will cause 
the volcano to swell, and magma moving through a 
"plumbing system" from one chamber to another will 
cause deflation of one part and inflation of another 
part of the volcano. For instance, in a Hawaiian-type 
shield volcano magma transfer from beneath the 
central caldera to a rift zone can be tracked by 
measuring the shape of the volcano, and such 
measurements help to predict when magma might begin 
erupting from fissures in the rift zone. But don't be 
fooled — volcanoes do not always swell measurably 
before eruptions; volcanoes drawing on deep magma 
reservoirs usually erupt without noticeable swelling. 

Sometimes the swelling oan give a very detailed 
picture of magma movement, fin example is the 
swelling of the north side of St. St. Helens during 
March. April, and Hay of 1880. because a shallow 
intrusive done was forming beneath the surface. 
Sliding of the rock masses above that dome off the 
flank of the volcano triggered the destructive 
eruption of IS maq 1880. 

Method : Volcanic deformation used to be 
measured bq establishing baselines like the ones that 
surveqors use. then remeasuring them everq few 
daqs. Prowling around on the flanks of active 
volcanoes with surveyor's transits made geologists' 
spouses and insurance agents unhappq. so filtmeters 
were invented. H tiltmeter measures the tilt of the 
ground it is standing on. usually by bouncing a laser 
beam off a precisely-located distant refleotor. and 
telemeters by radio a record of ground tilting to a 
central receiving station. These records are then 
analyzed by a computer, to provide a picture of how 



33 



the voloano is deforming. Onaa a tiltmeter is installed 
Coften bij geologists in a helicopter, so they can 
leave in a hurry if neoessarq], it generally requires 
no further attention for many months. Of course, a 
large eruption can destroy many or most of the 
tiltmatars on a voloano. and if it seems that the 
volcano will continue to be active, they should then 
be replaced. 

It may. under certain circumstances, be difficult 
to find volunteers to go bach to replace damaged or 
missing tiltmeters. If you are unable to locate 
volunteers, you probably don't need tiltmeters to tell 
you that something dramatic is going on! 

Analysis of Bases Emitted by a Volcano: 

The purpose of this investigation is to use 
compositions of volcanic gases as guides to the 
chance that the voloano mill erupt. 

Baohground : Dormant and active volcanoes emit 
gases with compositions that can be very different 
from that of the atmosphere. These gases are 
usually mainly steam, from water percolating through 
the porous rooks typical of most volcanoes that is 
heated and escapes in fumaroles or steam vents. But 
if substantial quantities of magma are present dose 
to the vents from which the gases are escaping, 
then the gases can be quite rich in other 
components. 

Important magmatio gas components include 
carbon dioxide and especially sulfur dioxide. If the 
gases have reacted chemically at high temperatures, 
without much reaction at lower temperatures to 



34 



obscure the high-temperature imprint, hqdrogen and 
carbon monoxide maq be present in considerable 
amounts. Both the proportions of the various 
compounds in the volcanic gases, and their amounts 
maq be useful in predicting volcanic activity. The 
proportions of the compounds are usually expressed 
as tons per daq and calculated from the composition 
of a relatively small sample and an estimate of the 
total flow rate. 

Method : In order to sample volcanic gases, you 
Cor. more likely, some member of your team that you 
view as more expendable} must approach the volcanic 
vents quite closely and poke into the gas stream a 
long tube connected through a valve to a sampling 
reservoir. The reservoir was first pumped down to a 
respectable vacuum, and when the sampling geologist 
opens the valve, some of the gas stream is sucked 
into the reservoir. The valve is then closed, and the 
gas sample is rushed to a laboratory equipped to 
analqze it. CSpeed is required so the gases do not 
have much chance to react with one another or with 
the walls of the reservoir, and change their 
compositions.] Qloves. protective suits, and gas 
masks are fashionable Cor. if you want to stay on 
good terms with your insurance agent, required] 
wear for the sampling geologist, and it is prudent to 
paq some attention to what the volcano is doing, to 
minimize the risk that the geologist will be 
incorporated into the products of the vent. However, 
this investigation is really quite safe, in the opinions 
of most team leaders. 

The results will be reported by the analytical 
laboratory as a general description of the gases 
found, with estimates of tons per day emitted by the 



33 



volcano that was surveyed. Because of uimer f ainties 
in the whole process, these estimates are a bit up in 
the air. Proportions of ntagniatio gases are likely to 
be wore useful to you as guides to the state of the 
volcano than are the estimates of the total amounts 
released by the volcano. 

Hues of Noahs from a Volcano: 

Background: Volcanoes often fall into an 
apparent pattern of activity, with some tendency to 
repeat whatever they have been accustomed to do in 
the past. Of course, it is easy to over-emphasize 
the regularity of these patterns, both because of 
wishful thinking and because of the human tendency 
to "see" regular patterns even when they do not 
exist. Still, it is useful to know about the past 
activity of a volcano when one is trying to guess 
what it will do. Even in a region that has been 
settled for a long time by humans accustomed to 
keeping written records, the time scales on which we 
can view historic volcanic activity are short 
compared to the time scales on which many 
volcanoes pass through their "life cycles'". Earth 
scientists have invented many ways of determining 
ages of volcanic materials, such as lavas, to try to 
deal with difficulties posed by the comparatively brief 
human perspective. Techniques based on the decay 
of radioactive isotopes in rocks or minerals, or on 
other features such as luminescence of minerals, can 
be applied to rocks collected from voloanoes in your 
areas. 

Bathed 1 You have some experts in determining 
ages of volcanic rocks on your team, or available to 
you because they are part of the staff of the 



38 



Hge-Reasurements Laboratory of Project Qentral. so 
you don't have to know a lot about the details of the 
methods they use. They will work on any volcano to 
which you direct their attentions, and will report to 
you the ages they have determined that lie between 
1.000 and 8.000 years B.P. C"B.P." means "before the 
present"!. In many respects, it is easier to 
determine ages of older rooks, but those ages are 
of little use to you in predicting volcanic activity 
within the immediate future, so the Hge-flleasurements 
Laboratory has concentrated Cquite successfully!] on 
refining techniques for determining ages of young 
volcanic rocks. 

In the past, when you have asked the experts 
on your team or at Project Qentral what the reported 
ages mean, they began arguing with one another, and 
if is many hours before you get any answers that 
make any sense, if ever. Consequently when you see 
a plot of ages determined for a specific volcano, it 
is probably best to try to figure out for yourself 
what they might indicate. Look for the following kinds 
of features: Qo the ages seem to clump in some way. 
or are they scattered in time without any 
recognizable pattern? fire there lots of young ages, 
close to 1.000 to 3.000 or so years B.P.? Or has 
most of the prehistoric activity of your volcano 
occurred longer ago? Mow many rooks were found to 
have ages in the interval between 8.000 and 1.000 
years B.P.? Looking at the data in this way is not 
likely to give you conclusive answers about what that 
volcano will do. but it may help. 



37 



Volcanoes Instructor /User Manual 



Introduction and General Information: 

This Manual contains suggestions about 
strategies for use of Uolaanoas. suggestions for a 
prelesson. a preuse test and a post use test fo 
assess student learning, discussions of useful 
literature, and background information for each of 
the major investigations, lie have assumed that you 
have read the documentation. If you have not done 
so. please shim it now... 

Some possible benefits of using Uofoartoes ® 
OafuMe or Vo/aanoes^ 

R. General Attitudes: 

— Cooperation in dealing with severe 
natural hazards. 

— Acceptance of ambiguity in observational 
data. 

Willingness to make decisions based on 
partial information. 

— Prudent budgeting of resources Cmoney. 
equipment, time]. 

— Understanding and acceptance of 
different interests which result in 
different occupational choices. 

B. Skills: 

--Reading improvement, though less in this 
version than in the old 



38 



—Use of House CBS] and accurate typing 
on computer keyboard CHpple II and P. CD 
— Qareful record-keeping/note taking 
— Interpretations of scientific observations 
—Use of maps 

— Use of Cartesian coordinates 
--Interpretations of histograms Cbar 
graphs] 

—Understanding of Earth's crust and origin 
of volcanic pipes 

Knowledge: 

— types of volcanoes 

—volcanic terminology with regard to 

products of eruptions 

— volcanic terminology, with regard to 

chemical compositions 

—geography where in the "real world" the 
various volcanic types may be found 
—methods and results of remote sensing 
surveys 

Infrared Scan — infrared emission; 
heat flow; effects of urban 
settlements on surface 
temperatures 

Seismic Survey — types of seismic 
waves; effects of contrasts in 
wave velocities; generation of 
earthquakes; harmonic signals 
caused by motion of a fluid in a 
conduit 

Electrical Conductivity" -contrasts 
in electrical conductivity; 



39 



relationship among electrical and 
magnetic fields 

--methods and results of other 
investigations 

Tiltmeter Survey — use of lasers 
to measure distances and angles; 
deformation of volaanio edifices 
because of sub-surface movement 
of magma 

Oas Analysis - chemical reactions 
among gases as a function of 
temperatures; chemical Nineties 

Hges of Rocks--the concept that 
ages of geologic events can be 
numerically estimated; recognition 
of episodicity in volcanic activity 

Maximizing gain from use of the program at home or 
in the classroom: 

In many instances the information or activities 
required to acquire the above benefits and/or skills 
are onlq implicit in Uofaano&sG*. and qou must 
highlight them for qour students. Vour judgement of 
how much qour students are readq to learn should, 
of course, dictate how much enhancement of the 
educational value of the program qou mill do. (Bear 
in mind that statistics show teachers usuallq 
underestimate the amount of material students can 
learn.] In our experience with using Uoloanoes in 
this waq. students tend to be readq to learn more 
than we have expected. 



40 



Strategies for the Use of Uofeanoes& 



flote that, as in mqths of maq hinds 
Voluanoes^ requires the participant to enter an 
imagined world, one in which the "rules of the game" 
make sense within their own context but differ from 
those of the real world. In the real world, children 
do not get to direct research teams, charged with 
the awesome responsibility of predicting volcanic 
eruptions, for instance. 

IHqths are universal in human cultures and 
alwaqs have as one of their primary functions that of 
imparting attitudes of central importance in the 
culture. We have planned Uo/aanoes& to impart 
attitudes that we are convinced are indeed of 
central importance in our culture, but manq of these 
attitudes contradict signals qour students receive 
stronglq from other sources. 

For instance. UolaanoBsG) aan be plaqed 
competifivelq. but is designed to reward cooperation. 
It is deliberately designed so that qou maq decide 
to use some combination of shill indices and budgets 
to decide who "wins". Ule suggest that qou use the 
shill indices as that is the more important factor. 
Vou maq wish to discuss this decision with qour 
students, if theq are mature enough. 

There is a widespread perception in our culture 
that scientists use arcane fools to discover totally 
unambiguous knowledge. Ua/aano&s& attacks this 
mis-conception head-on. and teaches both that 
observations of complex natural sqstems inevitablq 
generate ambiguity, and that one must nevertheless 

41 



make important decisions basad upon those 
observations and whatever interpretations can be 
made of them. (He have tried to shout a human side of 
science, in which fallible scientists use powerful 
tools but don't always understand the implications of 
tha information thaq gat tharabij. Thai's a varq olose 
approximation of tha real world, and it is worth 
pointing out to qour students the contrast between 
reality and mis-conceived myth. 

Some vlTHL information for playing tha game: 

Qhildren are commonly advised to budget 
prudently, yet they are also bombarded by 
inducements to buy things that they don't need. 
Volcanoes is designed so that anqone who plays 
recklessly, undertaking many investigations without 
thinking carefully about what they contribute to her 
or his understanding of probabilities of eruption, will 
do poorly. But if is also designed so that a plainer 
who hoards her or his budget will generally fail to 
predict well, owing to lack of information. Vou should 
encourage your students to plan their work, and 
remind them that their budgets will be replenished at 
the beginning of each turn. The provincial maps show 
locations of volcanoes relative to concentrations of 
population; ask your students to use that information 
to decide which volcanoes they will study first, and 
most intensively 

(lot all kinds of volcanoes are equally 
hazardous, and not all investigations are equally 
well-suited for studying different kinds of volcanoes. 
Hndesitio composite cones have a relatively great 
potential for destructive eruptions, although some 
cinder cones, because of their locations, bear 



43 



watching with care. Basaltic shield volcanoes erupt 
frequently but rarelq do much damage or cause 
fatalities. Both andesitic cones and basaltic 
volcanoes develop shallow magma chambers, which 
can be defected bq those investigations that are 
well adapted for that purpose. Oinder cones 
commonlq erupt magma drawn from magma chambers at 
depths of ten kilometres or more. Vou maq wish to 
discuss with qour students the implications of that 
fact... 

Qlassroom management: 

In qour olassCesJ. the student to computer ratio 
is probablq fairlq large. If so. qou can either divide 
the class into teams to plaq Uolaanoes& with each 
member of a team assigned a specific responsibility, 
or divide the class info small groups that will work 
with the computer in turn. The first approach 
emphasizes cooperation and group discussion while 
the second maq be too trqing upon the patience of 
qour students. Be recommend the first approach, 
though it maq take more planning and organization on 
qour part. 

Suggested roles for team use of Uoiaanoes ® = 
keqboard operator, mapper for the Infrared Scan; 
recorder of seismic data. etc. fill or some of these 
maq rotate, if qou desire. The teams maq decide in 
advance which investigations to do. how to set 
warning levels, or to have a team captain who 
delegates authority on a rotating basis, file 
recommend that teams be no larger than four 
because if there are more, it would be harder for 
them to agree on what to do. 



43 



Evaluating the learning from use of the program: 



Perhaps the best uiau, to review what has 
been learned would be to assign a project Ci.e. 
create model land-forms or some other non-verbal 
method of assessment] rather than tests. Students 
with marginal reading skills mau, encounter special 
difficulties both in plaijing the game and in faking the 
tests. We have data showing outstanding gains bu, 
slow readers when placed in a cooperative situation 
with brighter students. In anq event, the above 
methods mau, help slower students and the onlu, wau, 
to find out is to tru, them. 



11 



Pre lesson Before Using Volcanoes® in the 
Qlassroom — Elementary to College Information 

I. Volcanoes occur where magma Cmelted rochl 
reaches Earth's surface from its sources deep within 
the earth. The hinds of magma and the compositions 
of tha rocks that form in voloanio aativitu,. and the 
physical form of the volcanoes and their products. 

all help us to understand volcanism. 

II. There are three major ttjpes of volcanoes. Their 
names tell us something about the hinds of rocks of 
which they are composed. CSee glossary for 
definitions of compositions. J 

For example: 

a. Hndesitic volcanoes are made of andesite. 
The word is pronounced: andisitic and an dis ite. 
respectively The last sellable of the second word 
has a long "i" sound. It is thought that the word mau, 
have orginated in the Andes where rocks of this 
tu,pe are in great abundance. 

b. Basaltic shield volcanoes are made of basalt. 
This word has a short V sound in both words. 

c. Binder cones are made up of cinders which 
are usually basaltic in chemical composition. The 
chemical composition of the lava is the same as 
basalt. Onlu, the form is different in cinder cones; 
cinders have been exploded into the air. and fall 
near the vent to form a steep-sided cone. Basaltic 
lavas that form shield volcanoes typically are very 
"runnij" when erupted and build up volcanoes with 



15 



broad, gentle slopes. See glossary for further 
description of the forms lava takes when extruded. 
III. Here are some mountain profiles labeled H. B. Q. 




It. Here you might ash the students about uihether 
they have lived close to active volcanoes or 
traveled to see them? If so, uihich types have they 
seen? Ci.e Hawaiian = shield volcanoes. Pacific 
riorthwest = andesitic. dmerican Scuthuiest cinder 
cones.] 

U. Uihich profile best describes Kit. St. Helens? Uihich 
profile best describes the Hawaiian volcanoes? Are 
fhe magmas the same? Ban you give the reason why 
theu, may not be the same? CHnswer: "H" for fhe first 
and "B" for the second. The magmas are not the 
same as one is andesitic while the other is basaltic. 
The location of the volcanoes is important and you 
might mention the "hot spat" under the Hawaiian 
islands. However, ute expect mostly that students 
should be looking to differentiate between basically 
continental volcanoes which form chains and basaltic 
"rim" volcanoes such as those of Iceland.] 

HI. People trained to study volcanoes are called 
volcanologists. Uolcanologists studu. volcanoes to try, 
to find out if theu, are apt to erupt in the near 
future. 



Ull. The Seismic Survey is an investigation frequently 
done on volcanoes. They are the result of Earth 
crustal movements. CPhotocopy the section of the 
documentation booklet showing what the various 



IB 



signals look like or draw them and have the students 
copy them.D 

die envision that there are two levels of 
instruction with regard to understanding this 
concept. In the earlier grades students may just 
have to recognize which seism theu, are seeing but 
in advanced classes the underlying principles of this 
and fhe other investigations may, be delt with in more 
detail. Uery advanced students may wish not only to 
discuss how stresses build up in the Earth but might 
wish to build a model of what happens along a fault. 
II brief explanation of earthquake/volcanic 
occurances along lines of subduction zones might be 
given at this time. For any students the analogy 
between lightning/thunder Cfast and slow waves, 
respectively, arising from a single natural event] and 
the arrivals of p waves and s-waves from a distant 
earthquake to create a record of a teleseism is 
helpful. 

till. The rest of the investigations, or an 
appropriate selection from them, should be introduced 
and explained. For the Hpple II series of computers 
the word "code" may need to be explained. This 
word is used when a student is asked to choose an 
investigation or a volcano. The "code" is displayed 
immediately to the left of the choice on the screen. 
In the old version of Volcanoes®, you may change 
your mind by using the left pointing arrow to go 
over your choice before hitting "return". Once you 
hit "return" you have no chance to change your mind 
as fhe computer is acting upon your instructions. 
Also, you may re-enter the game if you are fired by 
simply typing in your name or a new name. Vou 
receive a new budget and a new skill index at that 
time and can continue to play the game with 
additional insight. 

17 



Use of the Pre test 



We expect you to present the class with a 
non-preparation test soon after introducing the 
pre lesson. This test should help you to see where 
u,our students are and establish a baseline for 
working with your students. You may use the pre test 
we have written, if it is suitable. 



Volcanoes Around the world 



The following list is only a partial list of 
volcanoes around the world because there are more 
than 500 of them. If we count those that are dormant 
or recently extinct, the number would be closer to 
several thousand. The volcanic belts are also the 
principal earthquake belts of the earth. Theu, are 
primarily situated along the areas of weakness in the 
earth's crust which has fractures or faults. In 
general these areas of weaknesses seem to be 
around the rims of the ocean basins. This is the 
territory which borders such basins or the range of 
mountains which forms the boundaries of the 
continents, [...or in prehistoric times formed the 
boundaries of the continents. } Some of these are 
now enclosed inside the continents. 

with a photocopy of a map of the world, draw a 
line around the rim of the Pacific Ocean beginning in 
South America, through the Andes Mountains up 
through Central America, Mexico and the western part 
of the United States to Canada and Alaska. From 



18 



there go west toward the Aleutian chain of islands to 
Asia and then south through Kamchatka. Japan, and 
the Philippines, the Moluccas, lorth Hebrides, lew 
Zealand and South Victoria. Another great belt 
extends east and west. This begins in Central 
America, extends through the West Indies; then 
through the Atlantic by the Azores. Cape Uerde and 
the Canary Islands. It runs through the 
Mediterranean, through Asia Minor and Arabia, and 
continues along the chain of the East Indies where it 
crosses the other line which uou just drew 
encircling the Pacific and runs out into the Pacific 
at this point. Vou now have enclosed within uour two 
lines a vast number of the most active volcanoes of 
the world, within your somewhat circular chain. u,ou 
have the Hawaiian Islands. There are manu, submarine 
volcanoes located in the Pacific Ocean. Manu, of the 
volcanoes that now form islands began life as 
submarine volcanoes far beneath the sea. 

The American hemisphere has more active 
volcanoes than elsewhere. The two active volcanoes 
in the United States are Mt. St. Helens and Lassen 
Peak. Since the eruption of St. Helens, other 
"extinct'" volcanoes have had their status revised to 
dormant. Kamchatka in the Soviet Union. Japan 
( Fujiyama J. the Philippines, and lew Zealand have 
active volcanoes. Hawaiian volcanoes continue to 
provide entertainment but at present only two are 
considered active. 

In the Straits of Sunda. Nrakatao stands as 
mute evidence of a tremendous eruption that affected 
the climate of the world. COiscussion of this 
occurance could form the basis for a paper. 3 

Iceland is the most important of the Atlantic 
centers. From twenty to twenty five volcanoes have 

AS 



been in eruption there on an almost continuous 
basis, with a large number being from fissures. 

Europe has its Vesuvius and Etna. There are 
manij volcanoes in Africa also on the east and west 
sides of the continent. Volcanoes appear to exhist 
also along the border between Asia and Europe — the 
Thian Shan Range. Paricutin. in Mexico, is the most 
famous new volcano and is distinguished by having 
been observed since its beginnng in 1913. Hlso in 
Mexico. Popocatapetl [The name means "smoking 
mountain".!] continues to belch sulfurous vapor from 
time to time, a reminder that the volcano may only, be 
sleeping. Klany parts of the world have volcanoes 
which are still classed as active. In flew Zealand 
there are Kit. flgauruhoe. Hit. Ruapehu. and Tangariiro 
which have not erupted recently. 

This accounting is only a brief picture of the 
scope of the volcanoes which make up the rim of 
fire around our ocean basins. Should you desire that 
the students learn more about volcanoes, they could 
explore the eruptive history of some of the more 
famous volcanoes mentioned here. 



SO 



Qlossary of (lew Terms for Upgraded Volcanoes 

Ha~- is a type of lava flow which appears as jagged 
or broken blocks. 

flndesitic Volcano - is a volcano built principally of 
andesite. an igneous rock with composition 
between basalt Cpoor in silica] and 
rhijolite [silica-rich J. Hndesites occur as 
lava flows and as pyroclastic materials 
Csuch as volcanic ash] erupted from 
volcanoes that are usually located near 
the edges of continents. 

Hsh — is a fine-grained material formed as a result 
of volcanic explosions. This material mau, be 
erupted high into the air and then fall to form a 
bedded sediment on the ground, or if may be 
deposited from a seething turbulent ash flow 
that moves close to the ground. In the latter 
case, the ash deposit usually lacks prominent 
bedding [it is unstratified] and can retain 
enough heat so that the fragments weld 
together after it is deposited, to form an 
ignimbrite [welded ash-flow tuff]. 

Hsh flow — refers to the movement of small solid rock 
particles along the Earth's surface rather than 
in cloud form in the air. 

Hsthenosphere — a portion of the upper mantle, 
generally 73 to 173 km below the earth's 
surface where the rooks flow freely owing to 
temperature and pressure. 



31 



Basalt— H line-grained, sometimes glassq. basis 

Csilioa -poor, iron and magnesium r ich] igneous 
roch. Basalts are generally associated with 
oceanic volcanism. as opposed to the andesites 
which are associated with the margins of 
continents. Basalts ara thought to hava formed 
as partial melts deep within the bowels of the 
Earth. 

Batholith — This is the largest of intrusive igneous 

bodies usually more than 40 square miles at the 
uppermost surface. This matter is molten when 
deposited but becomes solidified over time. 
Usually it is at the center of an intrusive 
bodij and may onlq be exposed bq erosion. 

Bombs- are large missiles of lava elected explosively 
from a volcano while still in the molten 
state. These lava missiles acquire a rounded 
shape bq being thrown through the air. 

Galdera — This is a large crater, which maq form in 
several waqs. the most common of which is 
collapse during a large volcanic eruption. 

Binder Gone — This is a conical hill or small mountain, 
often with a truncated fop in which is a 
bowl-shaped crater. It forms bq deposition of 
cinders around a more or less circular vent 
during moderatelq explosive eruptions. Lava maq 
erupt from the central crater or maq break out 
at the base. 

Gore — the central or innermost portion of the earth. 

Grater — a bowl or funnel shaped depression which 

32 



has been the outlet for the volcanic magma. 

Grust — the outer rigid portions of the earth. 

Epi center — The point on the Earth's surface directlq 
above the focus of an earthquake Cthe focus of 
an earthquake is the zone within the Earth in 
which rooks break and shift to cause the 
quake]. 

Eruption R volcanic event which is the direct result 

of movement of magma Cmolten rock] beneath the 
Earth's crust. 



Extrusive rocks ejected directlq onto the surface 

of the Earth. 

Fire Founfaining — Streams of lava shot skqward from 
a vent owing to the force of expanding gases 
that are being released from the magma as it 
approaches the surface. This structure is 
usually an elongated vent called a "fissure". 

Igneous— rocks formed from the molten state, either 
intrusive or extrusive. 

Ignimbrites — These rocks are formed bq the welding 
or sticking together of still-plastic bits of 
glass and pumice in deposits of hot fragmenfal 
material. Flows which produce these deposits 
are called ash flows, and an alternative name 
for ignimbrite is welded ash-flow tuff. Hsh-flow 
tuffs need not be welded, however, if theq were 
deposited while cool. Deposits from mud flows, 
called lahars. sometimes have features like 
those of ignimbrites. fill these kinds of 



S3 



fragmental flows can be verq destructive. 



3<* 



Intrusive — These are rochs that form from the molten 
state but which solidifq below the surface 
of the earth. 

Island Hros — These are volcanic islands, generally in 
arcurate rows, major features of which are 
chains of andesitic volcanoes. 

Lahars — Fragmental deposits formed from mud flows 

that sweep rapidlu, down volcanic slopes, usually 
more-or-less confined to stream valleys draining 
the volcanic edifice. Lahars often are directlu, 
associated with an eruption Ce.g.. the mud flow 
and lahar of the great eruption of flit. St. 
Helens on 18 fllau, 19803. but sometimes form 
when overlij-steep volcanic slopes lubricated bq 
rain or melting ice break loose in the absence 
of eruptive activitq. 

Lava -fllolten roah Cgenerallq containing dissolved 

gases] which issues from Earth's inferior onto 
the surface of the Earth. 

Lithosphere the crust and upper mantle which is 

located above the asthenosphere and is 
believed to include the plates. 

Magma — all of the extruded materials which come out 
of a volcano. These include the gases, liquids, 
and solids. 

Mantle — That portion of the earth between the crust 
and the core. 



SS 



Mohorovicic discontinuity fllloho] — the boundary 
between the crust and the mantle. 



Pahoehoe--a type of lava flow which has a ropy 
appearance. 

Pyroolastio — Materials thrown out by a volcano in a 

fragmentary form, either a solid or a liquid, are 
called "fire broken" or pyroclastic. 

Rift Zones — These are elongated areas of fissures, 
formed where rocks are affected by stretching 
of the Earth's crust. These serve as 
ohannelways to bring magma to the surface. 

Seismograph — Hn instrument designed to measure the 
movement of the ground during an earthquake, 
modern seismographs telemeter their results to 
a central location where the data are analyzed 
to find out what kind of earthquake has been 
observed, and where if originated. 

Seismogram — H record of the different kinds of 

waves that occur in an earthquake. Each type 
of wave moves through the Earth in a different 
way. and conveys different information about the 
materials through which it moves. 

Shield Volcano-Through the repeated outpourings of 
fluid lava around a vent a cone aan be 
constructed. In shield volcanoes, these cones 
have a low. broad profile with a small crater or 
caldera in the top. However, if the viscosity of 
the lava erupted increases, or if cinders are 
erupted, a small steeper-sided central cone 
develops, so that the volcano looks like a huge 



36 



Viking shield laid on the ground. [Shield 
volcanoes were given that name in Iceland.] 

Sial" the upper and lighter granitic portions of the 
Earth's crust. The name refers to the 
composition of the material, mainly silica and 
alumina. 

Sima- refers to the heavier basaltic portions of the 
earth's crust. The name refers to the 
composition of the material, mainly magnesium 
and silica. 

Strato-voloano an intermediate type of volcano built 

up of lavas and fragmentals [from more 
explosive eruptions!. 

Tuff Hsh deposits which are consolidated and in 

which the fragments are no larger than 2 cm. 
in diameter. 



37 



Bibliography supplement for Volcanoes 



Hylsworth. Thorn- Geological Disasters 
Bullard. Fred (1. -Volcanoes of the Earth 
Coleman. Satis-Volcanoes, Dew and Old 
Decher. Robert Ml. Uolcanoes 

Nruger. Christopher 6 Others-Volcanoes. CP. Putman 
fc Sons, lew Vorh, cl970. ISSp. 

Lambert. fll.B — Volcanoes, published by the fllinistru, of 
Supply and Services in Canada. cl978 Et 
1980. SI p. 

Ritfmann. H. E L. --Volcanoes. GS.P. Putnam's Sons, fleu 
Vorh. cl97q. 128 p. 

Shangle. Robert D. Volcano - The First Seventy 

Days. Ht. St. Helens. 1980. Beautiful 
America Publishing. 18p. 

Tazieff. Haroun-Oraters of Fire. Harper E Brothers, 
lent Vorh. clS33. 239p. 

Tazieff. Haroun-Dyiragongo. the Forbidden Volcano. 

Barron's/Woodbury. Dew Vorh, copyright 
1973 drench edition] and 1979. 383p. 

Editors of Time-Life Boohs Planet Earth. Volcano. 
Alexandria. Virginia. cl882. 17Sp. 

IDilcoNson. hent H. - Chains of Fire. The Story of 

Volcanoes. Chilton Boohs. Philadelphia and 



38 



Dew Vorh. cl9SB. 23Sp. 



Uilliams. Howell--The Hncient Volcanoes of Oregon. 

Oregon State System of Higher Education. 
Eugene. Oregon. c!9S2. B9p. 

Dumerous magazines exhist which feature articles on 
volcanoes from time to time. It is 
impossible to heep trach of all of the 
publications and so we are listing a few 
here. Among the most noted are Dational 
Geographic, Datural History. Dature. 
Discover. Scientific American. Ranger Rich 
and Science. 



Uolcanoes® is a registered 
trademark of Earthuiare 
Computer Services, 
lolcanoes®. upon which this 
product is based is 
copyright 1981. 1987 and 
lolcanoes® Deluxe is 
copyright 1987 bu, 
Earthware® Qoniputer 
Services. ripple IIBS is a 
registered trademark of 
Flpple Computer. Inc. Flpple 
Computer. Inc. makes no 
warranties whatsoever for 
this product. Earthware® 
describes its warranto, 
elsewhere in this booklet. 




Uolaanoes*> is 8 registered 
trademark ol Earlhuaro 
Computer Servioos. 
UolaanoesB. upon ahiah Ibis 
product is basod is 
oopurieht ISS1. 1387 and 
Volcanoes® Deluxe is 
copqriehl 1387 bq 
EarlhoareS Computer 
Services. Rppla IICS is a 
registered trademark ol 
Rppla Computer. Inc. Hppla 
Computer. Inc. makes no 
warranties whatsoever lor 
this product. Esrlhnare® 
describes Its uarrantu, 
Isaahera in Ibis booklet. 




Newsletter of Earthware® Products 



Volcanoes® Deluxe ior tne PC ana Apple liGS* 



Graphic depiction of the "classic" Apple II product in ujhich 
students inuestigate simulated uolcanic situations and predict 
eruptions. Teaches deductiue reasoning, map reading skills, 
cooperation, etc. Used in applied physics, geology, and geography 
courses internationally. Suggested retail $59.95. Netuuor kabte. 



Uolcanoes® Apple II series 

for the Apple is a less graphic 

uersion of Uolcanoes® DeluKe. 

It is a simulation in game format 

ushich has been highly successfully 

used. Single copies $49.50. 

Lab packs only: $110 ea. 



Star Search® 

A planetary exploration 

game for use in 
earth science, astronomy, 
general science courses 
etc. Listed in NASA 
catalog. Single $45. 



Final EKam ... 

This is a test or drill-making package tuhich supports graphics 
and enables either paper or machine testing. Scores are displayed 
at end of machine test. Price — $29.95 

Final Ehh ffi Professional ***************** ************************ 
Replacement for aboue Final Exam. Complete drawing system 
permits graphics anywhere on page. Data analysis of test 
questions. Question linking. Picture answers as ixrell as tent. 
$59.95. Available for Apple lie, He and GS by Fall 1988 and for 
PC January 1989. 

*********************************************************************** 
I usish to order: 




Uolcanoes® Deluxe 6S 

Uolcanoes® Deluxe PC 

Uolcanoes® Lab Packs 

Final Exam Professional 

Distributed by Softkat through fine daalers everywhere! 

Or order directly from us. Uisa'MC, C O.D , Per Ck., or Schl P 



Star Search® 

Final Exam Apple II 

Star Search® Lab Packs 

Uolcanoes ® Apple II 



Earthware® Computer Services 
P.O. Box 30039 
Eugene, OR 97403 
Tel. -(503) 344-3303 



♦ Uolcanoes Deluxe PC requires CGA, Apple DC 6S requires 1.2 Meg RAM